17.772 a brief history of humanities computing

From: Humanist Discussion Group (by way of Willard McCarty willard.mccarty@kcl.ac.uk)
Date: Fri May 07 2004 - 16:58:59 EDT

  • Next message: Humanist Discussion Group (by way of Willard McCarty

                   Humanist Discussion Group, Vol. 17, No. 772.
           Centre for Computing in the Humanities, King's College London
                         Submit to: humanist@princeton.edu

             Date: Tue, 06 Apr 2004 07:15:48 +0100
             From: Robert Kraft <kraft@ccat.sas.upenn.edu>
             Subject: Re: 17.768 a brief history of humanities computing

    Since I just finished my own "retrospective" on how computing and computers
    changed my academic life, to appear soon on the SBL electronic "FORUM"
    publication (I'll also put it on my web page), it occurs to me that it might be
    valuable -- for Alexandre and others -- for us to collect (or identify) a
    relevant bibliography on the history of humanities computing that could be
    explored to determine just what we were thinking, and what was going on as it

    My own contribution was the "OFFLINE" column in religious studies periodicals
    (and also very soon online!) from 1984-1994, attempting to inform my
    of developments in humanities computing as it might affect them (of course,
    through my eyes) -- see

    "OFFLINE: Computer Assisted Research for Religious Studies," Nos. 1-5 in the
    Bulletin of the Council for the Study of Religion 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 16.1, 16.2
    (1984-85); Nos. 6-44 in Religious Studies News 1.2 (3/1986) to 9.1
    (2/1994); Nos.
    16-44 also in the Council of Societies for the Study of Religion Bulletin 17.1
    (1988) to 22.2 (1994); also was published electronically on the List Server of
    the discussion groups Humanist, Religion, and others. [Still available at
    http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/gopher/other/journals/offline/ ]

    Without taking time to do the detailed homework, beyond a look at material I
    collected in 1993/1994 (see below) and a quick google.com search, I recall that
    Steve Waite already was doing similar things for classical studies ("CALCULI"),
    and Dick Whitaker for biblical studies ("ARITHMOI"). There were also a few
    that attempted to survey what was going on, including efforts by Ian Lancashire
    and our own Willard McCarty at Toronto, by Susan Hockey from Oxford, and by
    Hughes a bit later (pun fully intended) both as a periodical ("Bits and Bytes
    Review") and as a book ("Bits and Bytes for Biblical Studies" or some such),
    among others.

    I know that there were many others, and in languages other than English. It may
    be that such information is readily available already on such sites as Oxford's
    HUMBUL (http://www.humbul.ac.uk/ ) or Michael Hall's "Humanities Scholarship"
    site (http://www.wam.umd.edu/~mlhall/scholarly.html ). Indeed, a useful first
    step might be to construct a list of the best internet sites to consult for
    studying the history of humanities computing, to determine whether there are
    significant lacunae and to suggest corrections or supplements, if needed.

    If noone else volunteers (or has already done it!), I'd be willing to serve
    as a
    (temporary) collection point for that initial list of useful sites, as well as
    for any suggestions to update and expand the available material on the
    subject of
    surveying computing developments in the humanities up to, say about 1993 (with
    the focus on SURVEY type works dealing with the HISTORY OF HUMANITIES
    not on the detailed articles on specific topics). Responses should be
    posted to
    the entire list, to help avoid redundancies! (I've appended the timeline and
    bibliography that I constructed in connection with an article on computers and
    textual criticism --
    -- which may help prod our collective memories.)

    Bob Kraft, UPenn (kraft@ccat.sas.upenn.edu)

    > Date: Mon, 05 Apr 2004 07:06:47 +0100
    > From: Alexandre Enkerli <aenkerli@indiana.edu>
    > >
    > Joe Raben's fascinating first-person account of the development of
    > Humanities Computing reveals interesting trends and provides some of us
    > (especially junior scholars like myself), with much needed insight into the
    > field's historiography. To oversimplify, the pattern seems to have gone
    > from biblical studies to machine-readable texts made in order to do
    > concordances which in turn were incorporated into broader database designs.
    > But for those of us who weren't in touch with these developments, it's
    > rather difficult to put these things in context. Several questions come to
    > mind. Wasn't there anything done with computers in the Humanities without
    > textual content? Was literature the only field benefitting from computer
    > use? What were the deeper roots of HC? What happened between 1970 and 1993,
    > when the Internet really exploded through the Web? How did computer
    > scientists in general became interested in Humanities (if they ever did)?
    > What were the first humanistic projects using computing itself as their
    > main research topic?
    > These may all sound exceedingly naive but a thorough understanding of the
    > field's development may not be as common as one would wish.
    > Thank you in advance for your help.
    > Alexandre Enkerli
    > Ph.D. Candidate
    > Department of Folklore and Ethnomusicology
    > Indiana University

    Computers and Biblical Studies: a Brief Outline
    by RAK (2 Sept 1993; update 21 Dec 1993)

    Selected highlights (by date) of computer developments of special
    relevance for biblical studies:

    1942 Martin Joos dissertation (Wisconsin) on statistical studies
           of Gothic phonology
    1949 Roberto Busa's Aquinas Project begun (study of literature)
    1951-57 John Ellison's Harvard Dissertation (NT textcriticism)
    1955 Centre d'Analyse Documentaire pour l'Arche/ologie founded
           (Jean-Claude Gardin)
    1957 Ellison's Concordance of RSV, electronically produced
    195? Grace and Harry Logan, concordance programs for Middle English
    1958 Leonard Brandwood (London diss) on word order in Plato
    1960ff Raymond Martin (Dubuque, U.Minnesota) studies of translation
             technique [how much computer use?]
    1960 Roy A. Wisbey (Cambridge) Early Middle High German Indices
    1961-64 A. Q. Morton, et al. (Edinburgh) stylistic studies of Paul, etc.
           [builds W. C. Wake's work on sentence lengths, 1946, 1957]
    1961 Paul Bratley (Edinburgh) Dictionary of Older Scottish
    1961 Founding of LASLA (Laboratoire d'Analyse Statistique des
           Langues Anciennes) at University of Liege, Belgium (L. Delatte)
    1964 Literary and Linguistic Computing Centre (Cambridge, R. Wisbey)
    1964 Gerard E. Weil (CNRS, Nancy FR), CATAB Project on Hebrew Bible
           (cantillation, etc.)
    1965 LASLA publishes its journal REVUE
    1965 Creation of NEH (National Endowment for the Humanities) in US
    1965 James Marchand (U.Illinois, Urbana) creates Gothic Bible concordance
           [see Vanderbilt dissertation by Joseph Puryear (1967)]
    1966 Computers and the Humanities Journal (J. Raben)
    1967 David W. Packard (Harvard) dissertation on Minoan Linear A, and
           concordance to Livy
    1967 Richard E. Whitaker (Harvard) Ugaritic concordance, dissertation
    1967 Original COCOA (word COunt and COncordance generation on the Atlas
           computer) program written by D. B. Russell [where?]
    1967-1979 CALCULI newsletter by Stephen Waite (Dartmouth)
    1967 CETEDOC established (Paul Tombeur) [CALCULI 152]
    1968 journal of Computer Studies in the Humanities and Verbal Behavior
    1968 British Academy Committee on the Use of Computers in Textual
           Criticism, chaired by K. J. Dover [when did it begin?]
    1968 Beuron Vulgate Concordance Project (Fischer, Ott)
    1969 Hebrew Computational Linguistics Bulletin begun
    1968ff Y. T. Radday (Haifa ISR) studies Hebrew Bible styles
    1969 American Philological Association Repository begun
    1970 Yehuda T. Radday works on Isaiah Authorship
    1970 Cambridge ENG Conference on "Computer in Literary Research"
    1970 consultations, reports & activities (SBL, SNTS-Grayston,
           Fischer, etc.)
    1970 F. I. Andersen & D. Forbes (Hebrew scriptures; syntax)
    1971-81 Richard Whitaker, ARITHMOI (biblical studies)
    1971ff Maredsous Project (biblical texts and translations)
    1971 Arthur Baird and David N. Freedman, Computer Bible Series,
           Biblical Research Associates
    1972 TLG Project begins (Theodore Brunner, UCal Irvine)
    1973 Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing (ALLC)
           founded, Bulletin begins
    1973 beginning of Tuebingen Colloquia on computing
    1973 David Packard Morph Analysis Program
    1974 Raymond Martin (translation technique, style, etc.)
    1975 David Packard develops early IBYCUS (1977) prototypes
    1975 Yakov Choueka (BarIlan ISR), Responsa Project begins
    1975-78 SBL Consultations on Computing (J. C. Hurd)
    1976 Oxford Text Archive established
    1977 Werkgroep Informatica at Amsterdam (E. Talstra, F. Postma)
    1977 Joseph Raben Directory of Scholars Active in Computer
           Assisted Research in The Humanities (Pergamon)
    1978 CNRS Colloquium on Computers and Textual Criticism [CALCULI
           291f.; published by J.Irigoin and G.P.Zarri in 1979 -- see articles
           by Griffith, Kleinlogel, etc.]
    1978 Association for Computers and Humanities (ACH) founded
    1978 CATSS Project Probes at UPenn (Greek Jewish Scriptures)
    1979 H. Van Dyke Parunak (Hebrew Scriptures; lexical density plots)
    1979 GRAMCORD (Reference Manual; Paul Miller)
    1979 CARG (Computer Assisted Reserch Group) of SBL; John Hurd (Toronto)
    1980 CIB (Centre: Informatique et Bible) of PROBi (Promotion Biblique et
           Informatique) founded in Maredsous BEL (F. Poswick), followed in
           1981 by its periodical INTERFACE
    1981 Friberg NT Morph article published (ed Patton)
    1981 Michigan-Claremont BHS text encoding begun (Parunak-Whitaker)
    1982 Association Internationale "Bible et Informatique" (AIBI)
    1983 Rutgers Inventory of Electronic Texts begins (Maryann Gaunt)
    1984 IBYCUS Scholarly Computer (microcomputer) prototype displayed
    1984 OFFLINE column begins (SBL), CCAT at UPenn
    1985 AIBI First International Colloquium, Louvain-la-Neuve
    1985 TLG CD-ROM "A" is published ("B" 1986; "C" 1987; "D" 1992)
    1987 PHI (Packard Humanities Institute) established in Los Altos CA
    1987 John Hughes, Bits, Bytes & Biblical Studies (Zondervan)
    1987 Perseus Project begun (hypertext Classical Studies; G. Crane)
    1987 International Colloquium on 10th anniversary of Werkgroep Informatica
           in Amsterdam
    1987 TEI (Text Encoding Initiative) planning conference, with the actual
           project begun (SGML based) in 1988
    1988 AIBI Second International Colloquium, Jerusalem
    1991 AIBI Third International Colloquium, Tuebingen
    1993 TSI (Textual Software Initiative) proposal
    1994 AIBI Fourth International Colloquium, Amsterdam

    Catalogue of Relevant Resources for NT Text Study (July 1993)

    Ancient Texts and Versions:

    UBS2 and 3, UBS 3 corrected
    Stephanus (no diacritics)
    Byzantine text (" ")
    Scrivener text of 1894 [KJV base reconstructed] (" ")
    Syriac (Aramaic) - The Way [BBBS 569]
    Syriac Peshitta MSS - Dale Johnson [BBBS 570]
    Coptic - CATSS/CCAT & PHI
    Latin - Fischer/Stuttgart Vulgate (Ott)

    Major Biblical Textcritical & Concordance Projects:

    CATSS (for Jewish Greek Scriptures)
    Muenster Institute
    IGNTP (see MANUSCRIPT software]
    Beuron Latin projects (Vetus Latina, Vulgate)
    Vinton Dearing [BBBS 492 n11]
    The Computer Bible series [not textcritical]
    Denis on Pseudepigrapha (1987) [not textcritical]

    Software & Coding (see also Hockey; Yearbook 406ff):

    AFFILI (see below)
    OCP (Oxford Concordance Program) (Susan Hockey, et al., built on
        COCOA experience, see above)
    TEI (Text Encoding Initiative) Recommendations for SGML-type
        markup of all types, including textual variants.
    TUSTEP (& micro-TUSTEP; Tuebingen System of Text-Processing
        Programs) software package (Wilhelm Ott) [Yearbook 407f.]
    CATSS Format and Software (developed for OG/LXX)
    COLLATE program by Peter Robinson [Yearbook 406; can deal with
        large numbers of MSS, includes cladistic analysis module.]
    UNITE [Yearbook 408; for preparing critical editions with small
        numbers of manuscripts.]
    OCCULT (see below)
    URICA! (User Response Interactive Collation Assistant) [Yearbook
        409; for small scale collation.]
    PHYLIP & BLUDGEON [Yearbook 407; cladistic analysis]
    MANUSCRIPT, by Bruce Morrill and Jerry Lewis (for IGNTP)
    Interpreting MSS, by Timothy W. Seid [Yearbook 27; for NT
        manuscript training and analysis.]
    Gk MSS Identification module (from Parsons Technology)

    Bibliography (see also CALCULI, ARITHMOI):

    Ott, Wilhelm. "Bibliographie: Computer in der Editionstechnik,"
    ALLC Bulletin 2.1 (1974) 74-77 [annotated by Oakman 138: Most
    complete published bibliography of computer usage in editing,
    divided into two parts: computers in textual criticism and in
    automated book production]; and in Sprache und
    Datenverarbeitung 4 (1980) 177-84 [includes titles to 1983!].

    Hockey 1980, 166-67.

    Hughes, BBBS [esp 492 n11] (Zondervan, 1987)

    Lancashire, Ian (ed). Humanities Computing Yearbooks for 1988, 1989.

    OFFLINE (passim)

    AIBI Maredsous Newsletters and Bibliographies
        (1) Cathy Vanhove-Romanik, 1981 (Reports of Centre IB)
        (2) Servais, Ge/rard. "Bible et Informatique: Bibliographie
    1981-1985." Pp. 311-321 in Actes du Premier Colloque
    International Bible et Informatique: Le Texte.... Louvain-la-
    Neuve (Belgique) 2-3-4 septembre 1985 (Champion-Slatkine, 1986).
        (3) Poswick, R.-Ferdinand, in Interface and DEBORA-Doc (with
    updates on file at CIB-Maredsous).

    CNRS annual bibliographies in religion

    chronological list of publications (focus on text criticism):

    Ellison, John William. The Use of Electronic Computers in the
    Study of the Greek NT Text. Unpublished Harvard Diss, 1957.
    [Project conceived in 1950 and begun in 1951; see his
    autobiographical 1967 article. Metzger\1 169n1 gives title as
    ...Electric...Greek Text of the NT, corrected in \2 to
    ...Electric...Greek NT Text.]

    Dearing, Vinton A. Methods of Textual Editing. UCLA Pamphlet
    (1962). [Focuses on his Dryden project. Mentioned by Metzger
    169n1. See further Oakman 119.]

    Metzger, Bruce Manning. The Text of the NT: its Transmission,
    Corruption, and Restoration. Oxford U, 1964. [Discusses
    "statistical methods" of Quentin (163) and Greg-Hill-Dearing
    (165); concludes with skepticism that computer methods "will
    replace the use of rational critical processes in evaluating
    'good' and 'bad' readings" (169) = 1968\2 1992\3]

    Chenique, Francios and Gerard E. Weil. "Prolegomenes a
    l'utilisation des methodes de statistique linguistique pour
    l'etude historique et philologique de la Bible hebraique et ses
    paraphrases." Vetus Testamentum 14 (1964) 344-366.

    Froger, Jacques. "La critique de texte: une variante de la
    methode de Dom Quentin." Revue des Etudes Latines 42 (1964) 187-
    192. [Marchand thinks Froger first started publishing ca 1960.]

    Morton, A. Q. and J. McLeman. Christianity in the Computer Age
    (Harper, 1964). [Reviewed by Ellison in JBL 85 (1965) 190-91;
    nothing particularly relevant to textual criticism.]

    Burch, Jack. "The Use of a Computer in NT Textual Criticism."
    Restoration Quarterly 8 (1965) 119-125. [Metzger\2 271 = \3 257
    cites title as ...Computor...Text Criticism; based on unpublished
    Abilene Christian College thesis A Critical Study of the Greek
    Text of Second Timothy as Seen in Selected Uncial, Cursive and
    Lectionary Manuscripts (2 vols, 1963)]

    Froger, Jacques. "La collation des manuscrits a\ la machine
    e/lectronique." In Bulletin d'information de l'Institut de
    Recherche de d'Histoire des Textes 13 (CNRS 1965). [Noted in
    Froger, Machine 123n12, on a Latin text]

    Froger, Jacques. "The Electronic Machine at the Service of
    Humanistic Studies." Diogenes 52 (1965) 104-142. [lengthy
    introduction and survey of possible uses: mentions textual
    criticism experiment, in passing, in the context of verification
    and reliability of data (123); 126 refers to the same project as
    begun in 1960 at the Compagnie des Machine Bull, and 126n14 gives
    further bibliographical references, including a forthcoming book
    on the topic (focus on tracing genealogical relations); 134f
    gives a more focused expression of use in text crit -- to do the
    objective basis from which intelligent conjecture can proceed;
    135f explores possible controls for identifying scribal errors
    and modifications; 141 brief discussion of automatic reading of

    Ellison, John W. "Computers and the Testaments." Pp. 160-169 in
    Computers in Humanistic Research, ed Edmund A. Bowles (Prentice-
    Hall 1967). [somewhat rambling and autobiographical, but
    excellent awareness of some basic aspects of NT textcriticism,
    such as having an overall variation grid and categorizing the
    types of variation for evaluation. Deals also with authorship
    analyses and resistance of humanists to computers.]

    Dearing, Vinton A. "Some Notes on Genealogical Methods in Textual
    Criticism," NovT 9 (1967) 278-297. [See Epp, Interlude 410n71]
    [attempts to expound Greg's theoretical observations about
    genealogical relationships of texts against Metzger's simplistic
    observations; very theoretical and often obtuse -- seems to build
    arguments from single variation instances rather than seeing the
    complexity of MSS. Argues for complete examination via computer
    usage, and refers to appropriate software including his own

    Huston, Hollis W. "Beatty Papyrus 1 and Gospel Text Types," CHum
    1.3 (January 1967) 108.

    Froger, Jacques, and Philippe Pore/. La critique des textes et
    son automatisation (Initiation aux nouveaute/s de la science 7;
    Paris: Dunod, 1968). [So Hockey; Oakman 118 n12 says 1967;
    reviewed by Dearing in CHum 4 (1969) 151; Oakman 136 n39 adds:
    Ju%rgen Mau and his associates at Go%ttingen have developed a
    series of computer routines called AFFILI to develop stemma on
    Froger's principles. See Ju%rgen Mau, "Affiliation Programs,"
    RELO Revue 3 (1972) 63-76, and Heinz-Jo%rg Ahnert, "Affiliation
    Programs (Part II) Using the Program 'AFFILI,'" RELO Revue 4
    (1972) 34-54.]

    Silva, Georgette and Cliff Bellamy. Some Procedures and Programs
    for Processing Language Data (Monash University [Australia],
    1968) 41-45. [Discussed in Hockey 147f.]

    Fischer, Bonifatius. Vetus Latina Institut der Erzabtei Beuron,
    Bericht 3 (1969), 25ff [referred to in Fischer, Computers 307n1,
    as describing the GNT sample ed of Ep.James]

    Griffith, John G. "Numerical Taxonomy and Some Primary
    Manuscripts of the Gospels," JTS 20 (1969) 349-406. [Summary in
    Hockey 160; extends his earlier work on Juvenal (1968)]

    Silva, Georgette and Harold Love. "The Identification of Text
    Variants by Computer," Information Storage and Retrieval 5 (1969)
    89-108. [Oakman 122.]

    Aland, Kurt. "Novi Testamenti Graeci Editio Maior Critica: Der
    gegenwa%rtige Stand der Arbeit an einer neuen grossen kritischen
    Ausgabe des Neuen Testaments," NTS 16 (1969-70) 163-177.
    [Fischer, Computers 307n1, refers to sample ed of Ep.James due to
    appear by 1975; Ott, Applications 206 includes in bibliog.]

    Cabaniss, Margaret Scanlon. "Using the Computer for Text
    Collation," pp. 1-33 in Computer Studies in the Humanities and
    Verbal Behavior 3.1 (January 1970). [CALCULI 134 = ARITHMOI 1.2;
    Hockey 151f; PL/1 program used on 14th century French text;
    Oakman 117.]

    Farrington, Michael G. "Symposium on the Uses of the Computer in
    Literary Research: A Conference Report," CHum 4.5 (May 1970) 315-
    317 [On the 1970 Cambridge Conference reported in ARITHMOI 1.1
    by Stuart G. Hall.]

    Froger, Jacques. "La critique des textes et l'ordinateur." Vigliiae
    Christianae 24 (1970) 210-217. [Presented at the 5th
    International Congress of Classical Studies in Bonn, Germany,
    Sept 1969 (Calculi 69=79=81).]

    Fischer, Bonifatius. "The Use of Computers in NT Studies, with Special
    Reference to Textual Criticism." JTS 21 (1970) 297-308. [See Epp
    Interlude 412n1, Ott Applications bibliog.; see section 6 on
    textcritical theory, sec 7 on the sample ed of Ep.James "in 5
    years' time" (with description of encoding procedures, etc.), and
    the idea of being able to check changes in MS alignments during
    course of a text (308)]

    Ott, Wilhelm. "Transcription and Correction of Texts on Paper
    Tape: Experiences in Preparing the Latin Bible Text for the
    Computer," LASLA Revue 2 (1970) 51-66.

    Petty, George R. and William M. Gibson. Project OCCULT: The
    Ordered Computer Collation of Unprepared Literary Text (NYU
    Press, 1970). [Described in Hockey 149-51, Oakman 115.]

    Sarna, David E. Y. A Computer-Aided Edition of the Tosefta Sotah
    (Waltham, MASS: Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 1970)
    [ARITHMOI 1.2 -- includes description of MSS collation programs
    and formatting for print; see also Sarna and Laurence H.
    Schiffman, "Computer-Aided Critical Editions of Rabbinic Texts,"
    Hebrew Computational Linguistics (Bar Ilan University) Bulletin 2
    (May 1970) 47-63 (ARITHMOI 53).]

    Grayston, Kenneth. "Computers and the NT [reporting on the 1970
    Consultation on the subject at Newcastle]." NTS 17 (1970-71) 477-
    480. [from H. Greeven's report recorded in Epp, Interlude 413n80:
    pessimistic assesment of time to encode NT variants -- 200 man-
    years (478) -- and 20 man-years to develop scanning software
    (479); 480 recommend GNT electronic texts with major vars]

    Mullen, Karen A. "Using the Computer to Identify Differences
    among Text Variants." CHum 5 (1970-71) 193-201.

    Love, Harold. "The Computer and Literary Editing: Achievements
    and Prospects," pp. 47-56 in The Computer in Literary and Linguistic
    Research, ed. R. A. Wisbey (Cambridge University Press, 1971).
    [Annotated by Oakman 138: Practical discussion of ways computers
    can aid the several phases of textual editing by the designer of
    an automated collation program for poetry.]

    Widmann, Ruth L. "The Computer in Historical Collation: Use of
    the IBM 360/75 in Collating Multiple Editions of A Midsummer
    Night's Dream," pp. 57-63 in The Computer in Literary and
    Linguistic Research, ed. R. A. Wisbey (Cambridge University
    Press, 1971). [Discussed in Hockey 148f; Oakman 120, while
    Oakman 116 refers also to her article on "Computer Collation" in
    Computer Studies in the Humanities and Verbal Behavior = CSHVB 4
    (1973) 45-47.]

    Zarri, Gian-Pierro. "L'automazione delle procedure di Critica
    Testuale, problemi e prospetive," pp. 147-166 in Problemes poses
    par la formalisation et l'automatisation de methodes d'analyse de
    la transmission su discours, ecrit ou oral (Centre d'analyse
    documentaire pour l'archeologie, 1971).

    [unsigned]. "SNTS Committee on Computer Aids" [report]. NTS 18
    (1971-72) 459-461. [460 ref to Ian Moir project on classifying the
    "late MSS of Ephesians and Colossians"]

    Eshbaugh, H. "Biblical Criticism and the Computer," Perspective
    13 (1972) 34-58. [Mentioned in Hughes's BBBS bibliography p. 608;
    contains references to a number of then recent computerized NT
    text-critical projects (see pp. 41-42 and his notes). Blayone

    Oakman, Robert L. "The Present State of Computerised Collation: A
    Review Article," Proof 2 (1972) 335-48.

    Howard-Hill, T. H. "A Practical Scheme for Editing Critical Texts
    with the Aid of a Computer," Proof 3 (1973) 335-356. [Annotated
    by Oakman 137: A reasonable manifesto arguing the feasibility of
    man-machine interaction with today's technology to develop a
    total editing system from input to final production of a critical
    edition; Oakman 134 n35 refers also to his "Computer and
    Mechanical Aids to Editing," Proof 5 (1977) 217-35, on hardware

    Fischer, Bonifatius. "Computer und der Text des Neuen
    Testamentes." Studia Evangelica 6 = TU 112 (1973) 109-121.

    Gilbert, Penny. "Automatic Collation: A Technique for Medieval
    Texts," CHum 7 (1973) 130-47. [Discussed in Hockey 152f.]

    Griffith, John G. "The Interrelations of Some Primary Manuscripts
    of the Gospels in the Light of Numerical Analysis." Studia
    Evangelica 6 = TU 112 (1973) 221-238. [his earlier work on
    "numerical taxonomy" = "A Taxonomic Study of the Manuscript
    Tradition of Juvenal," Museum Helveticum 25 (1968) 101-138 and
    in JTS 20 (1969) 389-406 is referred to by Fischer, Computers
    306n1, and Metzger\3; here he discusses the value of botanical
    models for numerical taxonomy to discover near-neighbor

    Griffith, John G. "Non-stemmatic Classification of Manuscripts by
    Computer Methods," Colloques Internationaux du CNRS (1973) 579.

    Ott, Wilhelm. "Computer Applications in Textual Criticism." Pp.
    199-223 in The Computer and Literary Studies (ed J. Aitken et
    al.; Edinburgh University Press, 1973). [See Epp, Interlude 412-
    413. Focuses on GNT Ep.James project, and on value of
    computer assisted printing of complex materials. Annotated by
    Oakman 138: A textual scholar with extensive work on Greek New
    Testament manuscripts emphasizes computer application to later
    editing phases -- analysis of variants, emendation, and
    photocomposition of the final text and critical apparatus.]

    West, Martin L. Textual Criticism and Editorial Techniques
    Applicable to Greek and Latin Texts (Stuttgart: Teubner, 1973).
    [ARITHMOI 4.1/43.]

    Zarri, Gian Piero. "Algorithms, Stemmata Codicum and the Theories of
    Dom H. Quentin." Pp. 225-237 in The Computer and Literary Studies
    (ed J. Aitken et al.; Edinburgh University Press, 1973).
    [Discussed in Hockey 159f.]

    Epp, Eldon E. "The 20th Century Interlude in NT Textual Criticism." JBL 93
    (1974) 386-414. [402n52 ref to German work on General Eps with
    computer assistance; 409 refers to "the computer program in use
    at the Muenster Institut" then 412-13 has section on "Computers
    in Textual Criticism": ref to Muenster, W. Ott, use in
    classification of witnesses, preparation of critical texts; notes
    relatively little activity in North America]

    Dearing, Vinton A. "Determining Variations (in the Greek NT Text) by
    Computer." SBL 1974 Seminar Papers 2, 14-35.

    Dearing, Vinton Adams. Principles and Practice of Textual Analysis.
    (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974). [CALCULI 222
    (but ARITHMOI 47 says 1975); Gospel Project begun 1975 (CALCULI
    237); Oakman 136 n39 comments: primarily concerned with
    developing genealogical relations between texts, including the
    use of computer models.]

    Ott, Wilhelm. "Remarks on the Specialist Group for Textual
    Editing Techniques," ALLC Bulletin 2.1 (1974) 35-37. [CALCULI
    223; focus on publishing techniques.]

    Poole, Eric. "The Computer in Determining Stemmatic
    Relationships," CHum 8 (1974) 207-216. [Reported in Hockey 158.
    Annotated by Oakman 138: A recent, lucid assessment and critique
    of computerized research on genealogy of texts leads into Poole's
    own method.]

    Duplacy, Jean. "Classification des e/tats d'un texte,
    mathe/matiques et informatique: repe\res historiques et
    recherches me/thodologiques," Revue d'histoire des textes 5
    (1975) 249-309 (repr in E/tudes de critique textuelle du Nouveau
    Testament, ed. Joe%l Delobel [Bibl. ETL 78; Leuven: Leuven
    University Press, 1987] 193-257). [Mentioned by Metzger\3 286, in
    context of computer applications.]

    Gilbert, Penny. "Using the Computer to Collate Medieval Latin
    Manuscripts." Pp. 106-113 in The Computer in Literary and
    Linguistic Studies (ed A. Jones & R. F. Churchhouse; University
    of Wales Press, 1976). [Hockey 152ff; Oakman 117.]

    Zarri, Gian Piero. "A Computer Model for Textual Criticism." Pp.
    133-155 in The Computer in Literary and Linguistic Studies (ed A.
    Jones & R. F. Churchhouse; University of Wales Press, 1976). [One
    of a series of articles, dating from 1968 and attempting to
    create algorithms that reflect Quentin's stemmatic textcritical
    principles: not directly involved in NT textcriticism. See also
    CALCULI 270.]

    Griffith, John G. "An Application of Cluster Analysis to
    Classifying Manuscripts." Unpublished paper read at Oxford
    Symposium [reported in Hockey 166] (1976). [see also CALCULI 242
    for an earlier form of the paper, 1975.]

    Cannon, Robert L., Jr. "OPCOL: An Optimal Text Collation Algorithm,"
    CHum 10 (1976) 33-40. [Mentioned in Hockey 155; annotated thus
    by Oakman 137: A theoretical computer scientist puts well-known
    methods of prose collation through efficiency tests and proposes
    a new scheme designed to maximize effectiveness in comparing
    words between two texts.]

    Richards, William Larry. The Classification of the Greek
    Manuscripts of the Johannine Epistles. SBLDS 35 (Scholars, 1977).
    [25 use for quantitative analysis and profile classification,
    with details on categories used; 136 "Computer Programming" short
    section (non technical); critique by Amphoux, 1981, see below.]

    Richards, W. L. "A Critique of a New Testament Text-Critical
    Methodology -- The Claremont Profile Method," JBL 96 (1977) 555-
    566. [Mentions on 563n8 that the quantitative analysis was
    facilitated by computer, and refers to his dissertation]

    Zarri, Gian Piero. "Some Experiments on Automated Textual
    Criticism," ALLC Bulletin 5 (1977) 266-290. [CALCULI 296.]

    Fischer, Bonifatius. Novae Concordantiae Bibliorum Sacrorum Iuxta
    Vulgatam Versionem Critice Editam. Stuttgart: Frommann-Holzboog,
    1977. [Includes variant readings, as in computer version of the
    Stuttgart Vulgate text (1975\2).]

    Warnock, David R. A Methodological Investigation of the Uses of
    Electronic Data Processing in NT Studies. Unpublished PhD
    Dissertation, Southwestern Baptist Theol. Seminary (Fort Worth
    TX), 1977 [or 1978?]. [CALCULI 289: evaluates the methodology
    used in studies involving the Greek text of the NT and proposes a
    preliminary design for a data base for textual criticism of the
    NT. See also CALCULI 209 (1974) = ARITHMOI 4.1.]

    Hockey, Susan M. "Colloquium on the Use of Computers in Textual
    Criticism: A Report." ALLCB 6 (1978) 180-181. [CALCULI 311:
    summarizes selected papers of the conference in Paris on March
    28-31, 1978 (= CALCULI 291f).]

    Amphoux, C.-B. "Les manuscrits grecs de l'Epi^tre de Jacques
    d'apre\s une collation de 25 lieux variants," Revue d'Histoire
    des Textes 8 (1978 [1980]) 247-276.

    Martyn, J. R. C. "The Value of the Computer in Editing an 'Open
    Tradition' Text." ALLCB 6 (1978) 242-244. [CALCULI 311: Suggests
    the use of taxonomy for traditions with many manuscripts to avoid
    chronological presuppositions.]

    Berghaus, Frank-Gunther. "The Validity of Various Methods of
    Automatic Clustering in Discovering Manuscript Relationships,"
    pp. 1-24 of International Organization for Ancient Languages
    Analysis by Computer Revue 1 (1978). [CALCULI 302 (= ARITHMOI
    52) -- "describes the usefulness of different techniques applied
    to glossed Old English interlinear versions of the Psalter."]

    Irigoin, J. and G. P. Zarri (eds). La Pratique des Ordinateurs
    dans la Critique des Textes [Proceedings of the 1978 CNRS
    Colloquium]. (CNRS, 1979). [ARITHMOI 53.]

    Dearing, Vinton A. "Computer-Aided Textual Criticism: the Greek
    Text of the Gospels Before the 10th Century." ALLC Bulletin 7
    (1979) 276-282.

    Dearing, Vinton A. "Textual Analysis: a Consideration of Some
    Questions Raised by M.P. Weitzman." VT 29 (1979) 355-359.

    Richards, W. L. "Manuscript Grouping in Luke 10 by Quantitative
    Analysis." JBL 98 (1979) 379-391. [379n.4 describes software &
    hardware in general: keypunched cards, fortran IV programming.
    Computer used to do raw statistics, most interestingly in
    "taxonomy" comparisons]

    Richards, W. L. "An Examination of the Claremont Profile Method
    in the Gospel of Luke: A Study in Text-Critical Methodology,"
    NTS [[get info: "accepted for publ." in 1977]]

    Ott, Wilhelm. "The Output of Collation Programs." Pp. 41-45 in
    Advances in Computer-Aided Literary and Linguistic Research, ed.
    D. Ager et al. (Birmingham: University of Aston Press, 1979).
    [Focus on TUSTEP collation program.]

    Hockey, Susan. "Textual Criticism." Ch. 7 (144-167) in A Guide to
    Computer Applications in the Humanities (Johns Hopkins Univ
    1980). [Discusses 1. collation, 2. relationships, 3.
    reconstruction of text, 4. compiling critical apparatus, 5.
    printing text and apparatus.]

    Oakman, Robert L. "Textual Editing with a Computer." Ch. 6 (113-
    138) in Computer Methods for Literary Research (Columbia SC:
    University of South Carolina Press, 1980; reprinted Athens GA:
    Univ. Georgia, 1984). [Outlines same stages as Hockey, prefaced
    by collection of texts, and refers to Love, Howard-Hill, and Ott;
    specific focus on approaches to collation.]

    Amphoux, C.-B. "Note sur le classement des manuscrits grecs de 1
    Jean," Revue d'Historie et de Philosophie Religieuse 61 (1981)
    125-135. [Critiques Richards' monograph 1977; CNRS based, but no
    specific reference to computer use.]

    Amphoux, C.-B. "L'analyse factorielle au service de l'e/dition
    des textes anciens: application a\ un texte grec du Nouveau
    Testament, l'Epi^tre de Jacques." Pp. 285-295 in Pratique de
    l'Analyse de donne/es 3: Linguistique et Lexicologie, ed. J.-P.
    benze/cri et al. Paris: Dunod, 1981.

    Amphoux, C.-B. "Quelques te/moins grecs des formes textualles les plus
    anciennes de l'Epi^tre de Jacques: le groupe 2138." NTS 28 (1981-82)

    Weitzman, M. P. "Computer Simulation of the Development of Manuscript
    Traditions." ALLC Bulletin 10 (1982) 55-59.

    Benduhn-Mertz, Annette. "Methodological Aspects in Automatically
    Discovering Genealogical Dependencies among greek New Testament
    Manuscripts." ALLCJ 5 (1985) 31-35. [Yearbook 405: creating a
    directed graph representing a stemmata of 750 manuscripts of the
    General Epistles, a project of the Institut fu%r
    Neutestamentliche Textforschung at the University of Mu%nster.]

    Weitzman, Michael P. "The Analysis of Open Traditions," Studies in
    Bibliography 38 (1985) 82-120. [A substantial discussion of how
    to reconstruct the history of contaminated manuscript traditions
    (O'Hara); including mathematical formulae for mapping MS
    relationships? Refers to scaling techniques described by
    E.E.Roskam and J.C.Lingoes, A Mathematical and Empirical Analysis
    of Two Dimensional Scaling Algorithms. Psychometrika 38 (1973) =
    monograph supplement.]

    Amphoux, C. "Pour un Repertoire des Manuscrits des Versions
    Anciennes du Nouveau Testament" [precis]. Pp. 405-406 in
    Proceedings of the First International Colloquium "Bible and
    Computer: The Text" (Louvain-la-Neuve, 2-4 Sept 1985) (Champion-
    Slatkine, 1986).

    Kraft, Robert. "Treatment of the Greek Textual Variants," pp. 53-
    68 of Computer Assisted Tools for Septuagint Studies I: Ruth, ed.
    by R. Kraft and Emanual Tov (Scholars, 1986). [Describes CATSS
    coding conventions and formatting.]

    Tov, Emanuel. "A New Generation of Biblical Research." Pp. 413-
    443 in Proceedings of the First International Colloquium "Bible
    and Computer: The Text" (Louvain-la-Neuve, 2-4 Sept 1985)
    (Champion-Slatkine, 1986).

    Aland, Kurt. Text und Textwert der Griechischen Handschriften des
    Neuen Testaments. I. Die Katholischen Briefe (W. de Gruyter,
    1987). [Presumably includes the long awaited ed. of Ep. James.]

    Hughes, John J. Bits, Bytes and Biblical Studies: A Resource
    Guide for the Use of Computers in Biblical Studies. Zondervan,

    Price, James D. "A Computer Aid for Textual Criticism," Grace
    Theological Journal 8 (1987) 115-129; and "A Computer-Aided
    Textual Commentary on the Book of Philippians," 253-290.
    [Mentioned by Metzger\3 286n4: "Price used the computer to
    prepare a genealogical tree of witnesses, as reflecting
    evaluations by the editors."]

    Weitzman, Michael P. "The evolution of manuscript traditions,"
    Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 150 (1987)
    287-308. [Develops a statistical model of the process of
    manuscript descent (O'Hara).]

    Salemans, Ben. "Van Lachmann tot Hennig: cladistiche
    tekstkritiek." Gramma 11 (1987) 191-224. [Yearbook 406:
    application of cladistic analysis to the derivation of stammata
    for a manuscript tradition.]

    Fischer, Bonifatius. Die lateinischen Evangelien bis zum 10.
    Jahrhundert (Vetus Latina: Aus der Geschichte der lateinischen
    bibel; 4 vols; Friburg: Herder, 1988-91). [A 5th volume with
    evaluations of the evidence is planned.]

    Uthmann, K. H. "Ordinateur et stemmatologie: Une Constellation
    contamine/e dans une tradition grecque." Pp 265-277 in Spatial
    and Temporal Distributions, Manuscript Constellations: Studies in
    Language Variation offered to Anthonij Dees on the Occasion of
    his 60th Birthday, ed Pieter van Reenen and Karin van Reenen-
    Stein (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1988). [Yearbook 405:
    comparison of a program by Anthonij Dees to reconstitute stemmas
    with Lachmann's method.]

    Pierce, R. H. "Multivariate Numerical techniques Applied to the
    Study of Manuscript Traditions." Pp. 24-45 in Tekst Kritisk Teori
    og Praksis. Oslo, 1988. [Yearbook 406.]

    Ott, Wilhelm. "Software Requirements for Computer-aided Editing."
    Pp. 81-103 in Editing, Publishing and Computer Technology: Papers
    Given at the Twentieth Annual Conference on Editorial Problems,
    University of Toronto, 2-3 Nov 1984, ed. S. Butler and W. P.
    Stoneman (NY: AMS Press, 1988). [Yearbook 406: special and
    multilingual character sets, automatic pagination and collation,
    indexing and concording, techniques for decomposing texts into
    elements to be sorted and formatted, and photocomposition
    software imply "a new organization of editorial work" and "set
    new quality standards for critical editing." These capabilities
    have been built into the TUSTEP system from Tu%bingen.]

    Harder, Raymond G. "The Rendering of Greek Particles in the Peshitta
    Gospel of John: A Study in Microcomputer Flexibility." Pp. 299-307 in
    Actes du Second Colloque International Bible et Informatique: Me/thodes,
    Outils, Re/sultats... Je/rusalem, 9-13 juin 1988 (Champion - Slatkine,

    Ott, Wilhelm. "Transcription Errors, Variant Readings, Scholarly
    Emendations: Software Tools to Master Them." Pp. 419-434 in
    Actes du Second Colloque International Bible et Informatique: Me/thodes,
    Outils, Re/sultats... Je/rusalem, 9-13 juin 1988 (Champion - Slatkine,
    1989). [Focus on automatic collation software, esp. TUSTEP.]

    Heather, Michael A. and Rossiter, B. Nick. "A Generalized Database
    Management Approach to Textual Analysis." Pp. 517-535 in
    Actes du Second Colloque International Bible et Informatique: Me/thodes,
    Outils, Re/sultats... Je/rusalem, 9-13 juin 1988 (Champion - Slatkine,
    1989). [Towards a "hypertext" model for biblical materials.]

    Weitzman, Michael P. "The Analysis of Manuscript Traditions:
    Isaiah (Peshitta Version) and Matthew." Pp 641-652 in
    Actes du Second Colloque International Bible et Informatique: Me/thodes,
    Outils, Re/sultats... Je/rusalem, 9-13 juin 1988 (Champion - Slatkine,
    1989). [Value of computers even in cases of wide textual
    contamination. Notes need to classify types of variation (n1);
    talks about 3-D vectoring procedures (n5).]

    Najock, Dietmar. "Computer-assisted Reconstruction of Texts." Pp.
    534-544 in Computational Linguistics: An International Handbook
    on Computer Oriented Language research and Applications.... ed.
    I. S. Ba/tori, W. Lenders and W. Putschke (De Gruyter. 1989).
    [Yearbook 405: methods based on intermediacy relation (e.g.
    Zarri), on manuscripts (e.g. Froger, Dearing,
    Kochendo%rfer/Schirok and Najock), and on dissimilarity methods
    (Weitzman, Buneman, Sattath/Tversky); three possible criteria
    (e.g., compatibility, parsimony, maximum likelihood);
    probabilistic approaches, reliability studies, computer-assisted
    editions and tools.]

    Nieuwoudt, Bernard A. "Beyond CATSS: Utilizing Relational
    Databases for Text-critical Research." L&LC 4 (1989) 254-259.

    Tov, Emanuel. Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible. Fortress
    1992 (Hebrew original, 1989). [Almost no mention of computer
    aspects, or of genealogical/stemmatic approaches; exceptions
    include 141 (CATSS also in abbrevs) and 163, 190 stemmatics.]

    Lee, Arthur R. "BLUDGEON: a Blunt Instrument for the Analysis of
    Contamination in Textual Traditions." Pp 261-292 in Computers in
    Literary and Linguistic Research: Literary and Linguistic
    Computing 1988 (Proceedings of the 15th International Conference
    of the ALLC; Jerusalem, 5-9 June 1988), ed. Y. Choueka. Paris-
    Geneva: Champion-Slatkine, 1990).

    Hughes, John J. and Peter Patton. "Concordances to the Bible: a
    History and Prospective." Pp. xiii-xxxii in vol. 1 of the
    Analytical Concordance to the New Testament, ed. T. and B.
    Friberg and Philip S. Clapp (2 vol, Grand Rapids MI: Baker,

    Ott, Wilhelm. "Computers and Textual Editing." Pp. 205-226 in Computers
    and Written Texts. Edited by Christopher S. Butler. (Oxford: Blackwell,


    Robinson, Peter M.W., & Robert J. O'Hara. (In press.) "Cladistic
    analysis of an Old Norse manuscript tradition," pp.??-?? in
    Research in Humanities Computing (Oxford University Press, 199?).

    Brunner, Theodore F. "Accessing Antiquity: The Computerization of
    Classical Databases." Pp. ???-??? in ???Classics and the Computer
    (University of Arizona, 1994?).

    Mealand, David L. [Just a brief note to say that E.Gu"ting and I
    are just completing a study of Asyndeton in Romans to 2
    Corinthians which analyses the textual variants and then from a
    list counts which mss. are most prone to losing or inserting
    particles. So forthcoming somewhere (I hope) is Gu"ting and
    Mealand on Asyndeton in Paul.]

    Blayone, Todd. [My thesis work at McGill University includes
    documenting the history of computerized NT research and assessing
    its impact and value in a number of key areas. (Textual criticism
    is one of these areas.) cxfw@musica.mcgill.ca]


    Some General Background Treatments

    Poswick, R.-F. "Informatique et Bible, 1985." Pp. 717-726 in Acts
    of the ALLC 12th Int. Conf. (Nice, 5-8 June 1985) (Brunet,

    Mealand, David. "Computers in NT Research: an Interim Report."
    JSNT 33 (1988) 97-115. [Yearbook 20 summary, esp. stylometry.]

    Tov, Emanuel. "Achievements and Trends in Computer-assisted
    Biblical Studies." Pp 33-60 in Actes du Second Colloque
    International Bible et Informatique: Me/thodes, Outils,
    Re/sultats... Je/rusalem, 9-13 juin 1988 (Champion - Slatkine,

    Poswick, R.-F. "Le Centre : Informatique et Bible de
    Maredsous et la Recherche Biblique." INTERFACE 91/41 (15 Juin
    1991) 1-8.

    Some historical items of possible interest:

    Joos, Martin. Statistical Studies in Gothic Phonology.
    Unpublished Wisconsin Dissertation [cf U. Wisconsin Summaries
    of Doctoral Dissertations 6 (1942) 305-307. "He used Hollerith
    punched cards furnished by Zipf; his method is quite
    sophisticated, and this is exactly what Busa proposed to do"
    (Marchand note)]

    Wake, W. C. "Sentence-Length Distribution of Greek Authors."
    Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A120 (1957) 331-346
    [many examples from Greek NT; did 1946 London dissertation on
    Hippocratic Corpus (computer assisted ?); A.Q.Morton refers to
    him frequently]

    Morton, A. Q. Literary Detection (NY: Scribner's, 1978).

    =====additional material for digesting=====

    Date: 23 Apr 1993 14:16:47 -0500 (EST)
    From: RJOHARA@iris.uncg.edu
    Subject: Trees of history bibliography

    Compiled by Robert J. O'Hara, Center for Critical Inquiry in the Liberal
    Arts, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North
    Carolina 27412-5001, U.S.A. (Email: RJOHARA@UNCG.bitnet or
    RJOHARA@iris.uncg.edu.) Suggestions for additions, deletions, and
    corrections are very welcome; my own field is systematics, so that is the
    area in which this list is most reliable. My object here is not to create
    an exhaustive bibliography, but rather a bibliography that will help
    advanced students in any one of these fields get a good sense of what has
    gone on and is going on in the other fields, with special reference to
    theory. Studies of particular biological taxa, language families, or
    manuscript traditions that do not have a theoretical or historical emphasis
    are generally excluded from this list. Asterisks indicate works that may
    be particularly useful to beginners. This bibliography may be freely
    distributed in print or electronically as long as the references and this
    header remain intact.

    1. Interdisciplinary Works
    2. General and Theoretical Works - Systematics
    3. General and Theoretical Works - Historical Linguistics
    4. General and Theoretical Works - Stemmatics
    5. Historical Works - Systematics
    6. Historical Works - Historical Linguistics
    7. Historical Works - Stemmatics
    8. Trees of History Elsewhere
    9. Miscellaneous Works on Evolution in Relation to Other Fields


    =Hoenigswald, Henry M., & Linda F. Wiener, eds. 1987. Biological Metaphor
    and Cladistic Classification: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.
    Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. [The most important single
    interdisciplinary collection, with papers on all three subjects.]

    =Lee, Arthur. 1989. Numerical taxonomy revisited: John Griffith, cladistic
    analysis and St. Augustine's Quaestiones in Heptateuchum. Studia
    Patristica, 20:24-32. [Application of cladistic techniques to a stemmatic

    =Robinson, Peter M. W., & Robert J. O'Hara. In press. Cladistic analysis
    of an Old Norse Manuscript tradition. Research in Humanities Computing.
    Oxford: Clarendon Press. [Application of systematic techniques to a
    stemmatic problem.]


    Clark, A. C. 1918. The Descent of Manuscripts. Oxford: Oxford University

    Colwell, Ernest Cadman. 1947. Genealogical method: its achievements and
    limitations. Journal of Biblical Literature, 66:109-133.

    Dawe, R. D. 1964. The Collation and Investigation of Manuscripts of
    Aeschylus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [On the limitations of

    Greg, W. W. 1927. The Calculus of Variants: an Essay on Textual
    Criticism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Greg, W. W. 1930. Recent theories of textual criticism. Modern
    Philology, 28:401-404. [Reply to Shepard (1930).]

    [Griesbach. 1796. Prolegomena to his second edition of the New Testament.
    (Establishes the principle of lectio difficilior, and other rules, fide
    Shepard 1930.)]

    Kleinlogel, Alexander. 1968. Das Stemmaproblem. Philologus, 112:63-82.

    Maas, Paul. 1958. Textual Criticism. (Translated from the German by
    Barbara Flower.) Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Quentin, Henri. 1926. Essais de Critique Textuelle. Paris: Picard.

    Reeve, M. D. 1986. Stemmatic method: 'qualcosa che non funziona'? The
    Role of the Book in Medieval Culture (Proceedings of the Oxford
    International Symposium, 1982, edited by Peter Ganz), 1:57-69.
    Bibliologia, vol. 3. Brepols, Turnhout.

    *Reynolds, Leighton D., ed. 1983. Texts and Transmission: A Survey of the
    Latin Classics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    *Reynolds, Leighton D., & N. G. Wilson. 1991. Scribes and Scholars: A
    Guide to the Transmission of Greek and Latin Literature. Third Edition.
    Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Reviews: Possanza, M. 1991. Bryn Mawr
    Classical Review, 2:431-438.]

    Shepard, William P. 1930. Recent theories of textual criticism. Modern
    Philology, 28:129-141. [Critique of Quentin (1926) and Greg (1927); see
    Greg (1930) for a response.]

    =Weitzman, Michael. 1985. The analysis of open traditions. Studies in
    Bibliography, 38:82-120. [A substantial discussion of how to reconstruct
    the history of contaminated manuscript traditions.]

    =Weitzman, Michael. 1987. The evolution of manuscript traditions. Journal
    of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 150:287-308. [Develops a
    statistical model of the process of manuscript descent.]

    West, M. L. 1973. Textual Criticism and Editorial Technique. Stuttgart.

    Whitehead, F., & C. E. Pickford. 1951. The two-branch stemma. Bulletin
    Bibliographique de la Societe Internationale Arthurienne\Bibliographical
    Bulletin of the International Arthurian Society, 3:83-90.

    Zuntz, G. 1965. An Inquiry into the Transmission of the Plays of
    Euripides. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


    Holm, Gosta. 1972. Carl Johan Schlyter and textual scholarship. Saga och
    Sed (Kungliga Gustav Adolf Akademiens Aarsbok), 1972:48-80. [Reproduces
    Schlyter's stemma of legal texts (earliest known) from 1827.]

    Prete, Sesto. 1969. Observations on the History of Textual Criticism in
    the Medieval and Renaissance Periods. Collegeville, Minnesota: St. John's
    University Press. [A lecture given in the series "Medieval and
    Renaissance Studies" at St. John's College.]

    Timpanaro, Sebastiano. 1981. La Genesi del Methodo del Lachmann, third
    edition. Padua.


    This archive was generated by hypermail 2b30 : Fri May 07 2004 - 16:59:22 EDT