5.0156 Rs: RLIN; Poetry; Dbl Articulation; Encycs.; Font (6/183)

Elaine Brennan & Allen Renear (EDITORS@BROWNVM.BITNET)
Tue, 18 Jun 91 11:07:46 EDT

Humanist Discussion Group, Vol. 5, No. 0156. Tuesday, 18 Jun 1991.

(1) Date: Thu, 13 Jun 91 15:03:04 PDT (14 lines)
From: cbf@athena.berkeley.edu (Charles Faulhaber)
Subject: Re: 5.0142 Qs: ... RLIN ...

(2) Date: 16 June 1991, 12:28:32 EST (16 lines)
Subject: Summary on World of Poetry Query

(3) Date: Fri, 14 Jun 91 23:00:54 -0400 (31 lines)
From: /G=S/S=LAWALL/@COMPLIT.umass.edu
Subject: 5:0139, E-Encyclopedia

(4) Date: Thu, 13 Jun 91 20:05:57 EDT (25 lines)
From: Alan David Bulley <458507@UOTTAWA>
Subject: Node Addresses in U.K.

(5) Date: Thu, 13 Jun 91 23:42:42 EDT (83 lines)
From: Bruce_Mannheim@um.cc.umich.edu
Subject: Double articulation

(6) Date: Thu, 13 Jun 91 13:47:12 BST (14 lines)
From: DEL2@phoenix.cambridge.ac.uk
Subject: Re: [5.0130 OE Font]

(1) --------------------------------------------------------------------
Date: Thu, 13 Jun 91 15:03:04 PDT
From: cbf@athena.berkeley.edu (Charles Faulhaber)
Subject: Re: 5.0142 Qs: ... RLIN ...

Research Library Group
1200 Villa Street
Mountain View, CA 94041-1100

Leslie Hume is a staff member at RLG and a member of Humanist. Her
e-mail address is BL.LPH@RLG.bitnet

Charles Faulhaber
UC Berkeley
(2) --------------------------------------------------------------19----
Date: 16 June 1991, 12:28:32 EST
Subject: Summary on World of Poetry Query

The verdict is unanimous on the "legitimacy" of the World of Poetry.
All responding said that the awards and the convention constitute a
scam, no more than vanity publishing at best. To Joe Lucia and Paul
Jones (with whose addresses my software has not cooperated), thank you
very much for your responses; they, like the others, were appreciated.

Margaret E. Cheney
English Department
Ellis Hall
Ohio University
Athens, OH 45701
e-mail: miltonq@ouaccvmb.bitnet
(3) --------------------------------------------------------------39----
Date: Fri, 14 Jun 91 23:00:54 -0400
From: /G=S/S=LAWALL/@COMPLIT.umass.edu
Subject: 5:0139, E-Encyclopedia

There are some reviews of the various CD-ROM encyclopedias in CD-ROM
magazines, I think. I looked over a number of them before getting
Grolier's, which has been useful for bits and pieces of needed
information. I checked over the printed versions of the encyclopedias
first, especially after I found that the much-advertised Encyclopedia
Britannica was the Academic American and not the EB as I knew it. The
Grolier's seemed to have the most up-to-date bibliography, at least
where I looked.

Occasional surprising typo's, including spelling Ngugi wa Thiong'o as
Thoingo throughout the article. One other oddity:

I don't know about the retrieval-category systems for the other
encyclopedias, but I'm getting curious after noting the following:
Grolier's has thousands of pictures that can be shown on screen, and
they fall into twenty-seven categories. Aircraft, frontiersmen and
Indians, fruit and nuts, invertebrates, mammals, military leaders,
political leaders, dogs, cats, fish, presidents of the United states,
reptiles, ships, writers and dramatists....etc. But not one single work
of art or architecture as such, and no category to suggest their

Better call this to the attention of Humanities Computing.

Sarah Lawall
Comparative Literature
(4) --------------------------------------------------------------31----
Date: Thu, 13 Jun 91 20:05:57 EDT
From: Alan David Bulley <458507@UOTTAWA>
Subject: Node Addresses in U.K.

To one and all,

I've noticed several queries recently on HUMANIST for node addresses in
the U.K. Just recently I fell across a couple of files which might be
of use to those trying to send e-mail to JANET nodes in Britain. The
two files are available from the NetNorth Administration (Bitnet's
Canadian sister), although I suppose they are probably from other
NETSERVs as well. Retrieving the two files goes as follows:

tell netserv at canada01 get janet helpfile


tell netserv at canada01 get janet sitelist

Hope this will be of use to someone!

Alan Bulley
Saint Paul University, Ottawa

Bitnet: 458507@UOTTAWA
(5) --------------------------------------------------------------91----
Date: Thu, 13 Jun 91 23:42:42 EDT
From: Bruce_Mannheim@um.cc.umich.edu
Subject: Double articulation

Tze-wan Kwan asked about the history of the idea of
"double articulation." The following thumbnail sketch
is taken from chapter 8 of my book, *The
Language of the Inka Since the European Invasion* (Austin:
University of Texas Press, 1991).

"Double articulation" was first observed by Aristotle, who
wrote in the _Poetics_ (section20) that "The Letter is an
indivisible sound of a particular kind, one that may become a
factor in an intelligible sound." Language is structured (or
_articulated_ or _patterned_) in terms of two relatively
autonomous sets of conventions: (1) a set of conventions for
meaningful elements (intonation contours, morphemes, words,
phrases, clauses, interactional routines, and so forth), in which
form and meaning co-vary directly; and (2) a set of conventions
for elements that are meaningless in themselves (phonological
features) but serve to distinguish the meaningful elements
(Hockett 1960: 152; Martinet 1964 [1960]: 22-24; Jakobson and
Waugh 1979: 43-44, 177; Shapiro 1983: 13). Duality of patterning
(or "double articulation") allows a small number of meaningless
phonological elements to be combined to distinguish an infinite
set of meaningful utterances. The relationship between levels of
patterning is very specific: the second (nonmeaningful) level is
made up of those aspects of phonology that can distinguish
meaningful elements (segmental features and certain prosodic
features); it does not consist of sound in general, nor of form
in general. This formulation of "duality of patterning" correctly
accounts for the scope of exceptionless sound changes [in the
neogrammarian sense]. Changes are regular and independent of
meaning only insofar as they occur within the second,
nonmeaningful level of patterning.

The expressions "duality of patterning" and "double
articulation" are used within different intellectual traditions
to refer to the same phenomenon. Americans are most familiar
with "duality of patterning," the phrase used in a series of
well-known articles by Charles Hockett (e.g., 1960). "Double
articulation" is the expression used in European traditions as
early as the medieval scholastic grammarians and the notion of
_articulatio prima et secunda_ (Jakobson 1985 [1975]: 189; see
Martinet 1957; Jakobson 1971 [1970]: 673).

The fact that the two levels of patterning are relatively
autonomous does not prevent speech sounds from being motivated by
(or _iconic_ of) meaning.

One point to add is that the expression "double articulation" is
rarely used by North American linguists today (perhaps because
it is too easily mistaken for an articulatory phonetic phenomenon).
Its North American counterpart "duality of patterning" also is
rarely discussed outside the context of animal communication studies.


Hockett, Charles F. 1960. "Logical Considerations in the Study of
Animal Communication." In W.E. Lanyon and W.N. Tavolga (eds.),
_Animal Sounds and Communications._ Washington: American
Institute of Biological Sciences, 392-430.
Jakobson, Roman. 1970. "Linguistics in Relation to Other
Sciences." In 1971. _Selected Writings, Volume 2: Word and
Language._ The Hague: Mouton, 655-696.
Jakobson, Roman. 1975. "Glosses on the Medieval Insight into the
Science of Language." In 1985. _Selected Writings, Volume 7:
Contributions to Comparative Mythology, Studies in Linguistics
and Philology, 1972-1982._ The Hague: Mouton, 185-198.
Jakobson, Roman and Linda R. Waugh. 1979. _The Sound Shape of
Language._ Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Martinet, Andre. 1957. "Arbitraire linguistique et double
articulation." _Cahiers Ferdinand de Saussure_ 15: 105-116.
Reprinted in Eric Hamp et al. (eds.) 1966. _Readings in
Linguistics II._ Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 371-378.
------. 1960. _Elements de linguistique generale._ Paris: Colin.
English translation. 1964. (tr. Elisabeth Palmer.) _Elements of
General Linguistics._ Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Shapiro, Michael. 1983. _The Sense of Grammar: Language as
Semeiotic._ Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Woodbury, Anthony C. 1987. "Meaningful Phonological Processes."
_Language_ 63: 685-740.

(6) --------------------------------------------------------------23----
Date: Thu, 13 Jun 91 13:47:12 BST
From: DEL2@phoenix.cambridge.ac.uk
Subject: Re: [5.0130 OE Font]

My thanks to all who responded to my appeal for help on OE fonts. All
the useful info has I think already been posted on HUMANIST, but shortly
after my posting I discovered that thorn and eth are alredy available
in the standard Adobe fonts on the Mac -- that is, those resident in the
LaserWriter -- but you have to do quite a bit of hacking into the
charstrings dict to find them! (Or get your software to use the
ISOLatin1 encoding.) As far as I can see, there are no wyn or yogh
forms defined.

Gratefully, Douglas de Lacey, Cambridge.